The Sakhalin Oblast's transport infrastructure includes air, sea, rail, road and pipeline transport.
There are six airports in the region, including one federal airport (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk) and five local airports (Okha, Nogliki, Shakhtersk, Yuzhno-Kurilsk (Mendeleevo) and Yasny (Iturup). There is a heliport in the Northern Kurils (Paramushir Island) and a heliport on Shikotan Island.
The region's maritime transport infrastructure includes 8 seaports and 11 marine terminals within their boundaries, a merchant fleet and the Vanino - Kholmsk sea-rail ferry service.
The main sea link between the island and the mainland is the Vanino - Kholmsk sea railway ferry, which has been in operation since 1973 and connects Sakhalin Island with Khabarovsk Krai. The ferry crossing provides transportation of railway wagons, cars and passengers. The seaports of Kholmsk and Korsakov are the largest public ports in the Sakhalin Oblast with year-round navigation and specialise in transhipment of economic goods.